Kona Macro FAQ

Kona Macro FAQ

#1 SIM installed but not detected

Some customers have experienced problem with SIMs not being detected by the Kona Macro. It was found that pressing the SIM into the SIM slot allowed detection but when released the SIM was no longer detected. This problem was traced to the SIM presence detection switch in the SIM slot. When Nano SIMs using Nano to Micro adapters are used, the switch is not reliably activated. Nano SIMs and most Nano to Micro adapters are slightly thinner than a standard Micro SIM. This difference in thickness causes the problem.

Also, please note that you will be required to power cycle the gateway after inserting the SIM card so that it can be detected.

#2 SSH Client no longer connects after gateway software upgrade

Security has been enhanced for Macro gateway software versions 1.9.5 and above.  Refused connection issues have been observed with older SSH clients - especially PuTTY.  The solution is to update the SSH client to the latest available version.  

#3 Is there an EU declaration of conformity document for the Macro Gateway?

Please see https://tektelic.com/terms-conditions/ for the declaration of conformity document.

#4 Why is minimum reported RSSI -125dBm?

The RSSI value is reporting the sum of the receive power plus the noise in the channel.  So for the cases of low or negative SNR, the RSSI value will be dominated by the thermal noise in the channel (+ noise figure).  Using the received SNR value, an enhanced RSSI can be calculated using the following equation: 

S_dBm = RSSI_dBm - 10*Log10(1+10^(-SNR_dB/10))


The equation reduces to the following at extreme values: 

S_dBm = RSSI_dBm for large  SNR_dB values


S_dBm = RSSI_dBm +SNR_dB  for small SNR_dB values


#5 How can I know the signal strength for the cell modem?

If you are using either Tektelic Network Server of OAM server , we recommend you to use the “Wireless Modem” tab in the Gateway on NS to know the signal strength for the cell modem. 

Procedure to go through( on both Tektelic NS and OAM Server) is as below.

  1. Go to “Wireless Modem” tab
  2. Click on RF Information
  3. You shall see “Signal Strength” parameter there.

As a reference, Below is the screenshot  of the "Wireless Modem" tab on Tektelic NS to give an idea.


Figure 1: Signal Strength  of cell modem on Tektelic NS 


As a reference, Below is the screenshot  of the "Wireless Modem" tab on OAM Server to give an idea.




Figure 2: Signal Strength of cell modem on OAM Server



#6  How can I install and run Loriot PF  on my Kona Macro GW?

 it is possible to install and run Loriot or any other Packet forwarder on Kona Macro GW. Loriot PF for Kona Macro GW can be downloaded from Loriot network server.

  1. However, care has to be taken while installing Loriot PF on GW as Tektelic Packet Forwarder will be running by default  before Loriot PF can be installed.
  1.  Hence, Tektelic PF must have been removed or stopped running before installing Loriot PF. Else, GW may have two different types of PF running on it making the GW unresponsive.

  2. Loriot PF file can be downloaded from Loriot NS. Below is the screenshot to find the correct type of Loriot PF file.


    Figure 3: Loriot Packet Forwarder file for Kona Macro

  1. To do that, we recommend to use KonaFT's network-switcher tool. Below is the Screenshot capturing the utility of network-switcher.
                                                                                                                             Figure 4: Network Switcher on KonaFT

  1. Upload Loriot Packet Forwarder file to the GW using File Transfer option. Once the upload finishes, click on Switch option to configure the Loriot Packet Forwarder for the GW.

    A dialog box shown  below will appear. It contains various types of Packet Forwarder from different vendors.

     


Figure 5: Dialog Box for configuring Loriot PF

 

  1.  Click on the Packet Forwarder Type field to select the Loriot Packet Forwarder. Select Loriot from the drop-down menu.
  1. Type the path of the loriot-tektelic-kona-eu-SPI-0-latest.sh file in the Source url field. Path shall be: file:///dev/shm/loriot-tektelic-kona-eu-SPI-0-latest.sh
  1. Enter root as the username and GW Serial ID as the password to proceed forward.
  1. Click OK to configure Loriot Packet Forwarder.
  1. Wait for few minutes to reflect the changes in Kona Micro GW.
  1. On successful change in the type of the packet forwarder, You can see Loriot running as Current Pkt Fwd in the Packet Forwarder Application.

#7 How does the user configurable Connection Manager (CM) and Network Monitoring (NM) works in KonaFT for Kona Macro?

Users need to install KonaFT v0.35 or higher first to use user configurable Connection Manager(CM) and Network Monitoring(NM).
  1. Both these features can be found in Misc tab located under Board Details. Attached image shows CM and NM feature on KonaFT.


Below is the description of how Connection Manager and Network Monitoring works as a part of BSP v4.0.2 for Kona Macro GW.

Connection Manager:

Upon disabling Enable Ping Test button in Connection Manager(CM),

  1.    CM simply checks for IP on WWAN0 interface every X seconds.
  1.   In case of not getting IP on WWAN0 for Y consecutive times, CM will reset the modem.

Upon enabling Enable Ping Test button in Connection Manager(CM),

  1.    CM simply check for Pings on 8.8.8.8 (By default) using WWAN0 interface every X seconds. (Note: Default ping address can also be changed by the user.)
  1.   In case of not able to ping  8.8.8.8 using WWAN0 for Y consecutive times, CM will reset the modem.
Where the value of X and Y can be configured by User in Connection Manager Configuration window in KonaFT.

By default X= 60 and Y=3

Network Monitoring:

 If no backhaul connection (No WWAN0 or ETH0 connection) is available, then after 6/10 ping failure, NM will set the No Backhaul counter to 1 and keep wait until it reaches to (Z-1) seconds.

  1.  Upon reaching Zth second, NM will reset the GW.

 Where the value of Z can be configured by User in Network Monitor preferences window in KonaFT.

By default Z=60

#8 Does Kona Macro GW require any lightning arrester or surge protector

  1. All interfaces on Kona Macro are protected to primary levels except for the 3G/4G modem antenna port. The Kona Macro Gateway contains primary lightning surge suppression on the Direct DC power port, the Copper Ethernet port, the GPS antenna port and the LoRa RF antenna ports.
  1. Ground cable among GW accessories protects GW from lightning strikes or the power surges. Also GW has Lightning protection plate, inbuilt in GW. Thus, it won' require any additional lightning arrester or surge protector.

#9 What is the difference between "tmms" and "tmst" timestamps in the Rx packet?

  1. tmms is available only when Gateway connects with GPS. It is basically GPS time.
  1. tmst is created by SX1301 when the Gateway receives packet from the device.

#10 How to achieve IP67 ingress protection with outdoor gateways?

  1. On the Outdoor Kona Macro GW, there is a screw-on type boot to maintain the IP67 rating. The unit acheives the IP67 rating on the Ethernet cable by field installing this “boot” over the cable and then crimping the RJ45 connector to the outdoor rated ethernet cable. 
                                          

#11 How can I configure Kona Macro gateway to forward and receive packets from other network server?

  • To configure the gateway to forward packets to any network server , you will be required to make changes in server_address field in config.json file.

  • You can make changes in this file through KonaFT. Below is the procedure.

 

            1) Go to Configuration.

 

            2) Click on Refresh files and it will bring config.json file.

 

            3) Click on Read option to read the file.

 

            4) In server_address field, enter network server web address of your choice as shown below.



 

            5) Click on Write option to save the changes.

 

                     6)  Power Cycle the gateway.


#12 What are the typical Rx sensitivity and SNR values as a function of LoRaWAN data-rate for Kona Macro gateway supporting US915 and EU868 ISM bands?

  • Kona Macro gateway has a custom RF front-end that optimizes RF linearity and noise figure performance.

  • Below table provides information on typical Rx sensitivity and SNR values as a function of LoRaWAN data rate for US915 and EU868 ISM bands.

North America (US915)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BW (kHz)

Data Rate

SF  

Required SNR (dB) at 10% PER

Thermal Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Noise Figure (dB)

Total Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Rx Sensitivity (dBm)

125

0

10

-15

-123.0

3

-120.0

-135.0

125

1

9

-12.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-132.5

125

2

8

-10

-123.0

3

-120.0

-130.0

125

3

7

-7.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-127.5

500

4

8

-10

-117.0

3

-114.0

-124.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe (EU868)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BW (kHz)

Data Rate

SF  

Required SNR (dB) @ 10% PER

Thermal Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Noise Figure (dB)

Total Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Rx Sensitivity (dBm)

125

0

12

-20

-123.0

3

-120.0

-140.0

125

1

11

-17.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-137.5

125

2

10

-15

-123.0

3

-120.0

-135.0

125

3

9

-12.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-132.5

125

4

8

-10

-123.0

3

-120.0

-130.0

125

5

7

-7.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-127.5

250

6

7

-7.5

-120.0

3

-117.0

-124.5



#13 Does Kona Macro require any extra configuration for using Verizon SIM card in cellular backhaul?

  • Kona Gateways are certified to work with Verizon SIM card.

  • By default, Kona gateways are equipped with generic firmware. Depending upon what type of APN is used with Verizon SIM card, gateway may require installation of Verizon specific firmware along with additional steps.

  • Below are the two scenarios that list the steps.


  1. If Private APN is set for Verizon SIM:
    • No need of additional firmware installation.
    • Inform TEKTELIC about the Gateway ID through a support ticket. TEKTELIC can add necessary details to the Verizon database.

 

  1. If Public APN is set for Verizon SIM: (i.e. VZWINTERNET)
    • Verizon specific firmware needs to be installed on the gateway.
    • Contact TEKTELIC Support by raising a ticket.
    • Depending upon the BSP version running on the gateway, one of Tektelic team member can help you installing the specific firmware.
    • Also,  Inform TEKTELIC about the Gateway ID while raising a ticket. TEKTELIC can add necessary details to the Verizon database.

#14 Is it possible to restore or roll-back the previous BSP version on Kona Macro Gateway?

  • Yes, it is possible to restore the previously running BSP version on Kona Macro if the gateway has a stored backup of the previous BSP version.
  • If you receive a fresh Kona Macro GW with BSP v3.3.0 from Tektelic, then there would not be any backup of previous BSP as it has been programmed and configured with BSP v3.3.0 at the factory itself.  As it is a new GW , there would not be any backup available at that point. However, you can create backups manually at any time using TEK NS server or KonaFT. 
  • If you upgrade that GW to the latest version, say v4.1.2, some time in the future and then you wish to restore GW back to v3.3.0 , you can do that as there would be a backup stored on the GW because  you made an upgrade to v4.1.2 from v3.3.0 earlier.
  • During an upgrade, a backup of the last saved state of a BSP is saved as a back-up by default.
  • Last saved state could be the state either before BSP on the gateway gets upgraded or the explicit backup taken for a particular BSP running on the gateway.
  • Upon restoring a specific backup, the last saved state of that specific BSP version would be restored.

#15 Which ports will be required to open for Kona Macro gateway on any network protected by firewalls?

  1. Below ports will be required for Kona Macro Gateway on a network protected by firewalls.

Port#

Purpose

161

SNMP

22

SSH

1700

 UDP

1883

MQTT


#16 How shall SIM card needs to be inserted in Kona Macro gateway?

  1. Below is a picture showing correct orientation and way of inserting a SIM card. Kona Macro gateway supports only the 3FF (micro SIM).

#17 How does the preferred and fail-over WAN settings and the fail-over mechanism work in Kona Mega GW?

  1. In Kona GWs, Network Interface is monitored by the Network Monitoring script (check is every 10 seconds). This will continuously check for number of successful pings on Primary Interface.
  1. Below is the detailed procedure that takes place while connecting an Ethernet or cellular. (By default,Ethernet -> Primary Interface, Cellular - Failover Interface) ( Users can change the preferred and fallback interface using Kona FT or OAM) 
  • After power up, when both eth0 (internet) and wwan0 connected, eth0 is the default route with metric 10 and it has DNS entries.
  • When you plug out the eth0 cable or eth0 cable lost internet connection, after 6th ping fails, wwan0 will become default with metric 20 and it has DNS entries.
  • When eth0 gets Internet connectivity (metric 30), After 16th successful ping, eth0 will become default route with metric 10 and it has DNS entries.
  • Wwan0 will be there with metric 20 always (It should have IP) in the default route entry. Only eth0 changes its metric from 10 to 30 or 30 to 10 based on Internet connectivity.
  • Note that Ping check happens only on Primary Interface. There is no Ping check for secondary Interface. Ping check happens every 10 seconds on Primary Interface.
  1. Ethernet is a by default primary connection for Kona GWs. 
  • If the Primary Interface is not available or No Internet, after 6/10 ping failure, all the packets route via Failover Interface.
  • Once the Primary Interface is connected and it has Internet then after 16/20 successful pings, all the packets route via Primary Interface.
 

#18 My gateway status reports Offline despite I powered it up and commissioned with correct information on Tektelic NS. How can I resolve this issue?

  • Gateway may report offline status since TEK MQTT Bridge would have been installed on the gateway by default and you haven't updated MQTT credentials for your gateway on TEK NS.

 

  • Below is the procedure to update credentials on TEK NS.

 

  1. Go to the registered gateway.

 

  1. Click on “Manage Credentials” tab as shown in below screenshot.

 

 

 

  1. Below are the default credentials to configure MQTT Bridge.

Username: TEK00XXYY (Where XXYY represents the last 4 digit of the MAC address)

Password : 9-Digit serial number of the gateway. (For example, it would be similar to 1951A0025)

 

  1. Power cycle the gateway