Kona Mega FAQ

Kona Mega FAQ

#1 SSH Client no longer connects after gateway software upgrade

Security has been enhanced for Mega gateway software versions 1.9.5 and above.  Refused connection issues have been observed with older SSH clients - especially PuTTY.  The solution is to update the SSH client to the latest available version.  

#2 Why is the minimum reported RSSI -125dBm?

The RSSI value is reporting the sum of the receive power plus the noise in the channel.  So for the cases of low or negative SNR, the RSSI value will be dominated by the thermal noise in the channel (+ noise figure).  Using the received SNR value, an enhanced RSSI can be calculated using the following equation: 

S_dBm = RSSI_dBm - 10*Log10(1+10^(-SNR_dB/10))


The equation reduces to the following at extreme values: 


S_dBm = RSSI_dBm for large  SNR_dB values


S_dBm = RSSI_dBm +SNR_dB  for small SNR_dB values


#3 How can I know the signal strength for the cell modem?

If you are using either Tektelic Network Server of OAM server , we recommend you to use the “Wireless Modem” tab in the Gateway on NS to know the signal strength for the cell modem. 

Procedure to go through( on both Tektelic NS and OAM Server) is as below.

  1. Go to “Wireless Modem” tab
  2. Click on RF Information
  3. You shall see “Signal Strength” parameter there.

As a reference, Below is the screenshot  of the "Wireless Modem" tab on Tektelic NS to give an idea.


Figure 1: Signal Strength  of cell modem on Tektelic NS 


As a reference, Below is the screenshot  of the "Wireless Modem" tab on OAM Server to give an idea.




Figure 2: Signal Strength of cell modem on OAM Server

#4  How can I install and run Loriot PF  on my Kona Mega GW?

 it is possible to install and run Loriot or any other Packet forwarder on Kona Mega GW.


  1. However, care has to be taken while installing Loriot PF on GW as Tektelic Packet Forwarder will be running by default  before Loriot PF can be installed.
  1.  Hence, Tektelic PF must have been removed or stopped running before installing Loriot PF. Else, GW may have two different types of PF running on it making the GW unresponsive.

  2. Loriot PF file can be downloaded from Loriot NS. Below is the screenshot to find the correct type of Loriot PF file.


    Figure 3: Loriot Packet Forwarder file for Kona Mega

  1. To do that, we recommend to use KonaFT's network-switcher tool. Below is the Screenshot capturing the utility of network-switcher.
                                                                                                                             Figure 4: Network Switcher on KonaFT

  1. Upload Loriot Packet Forwarder file to the GW using File Transfer option. Once the upload finishes, click on Switch option to configure the Loriot Packet Forwarder for the GW.

    A dialog box shown  below will appear. It contains various types of Packet Forwarder from different vendors.



Figure 5: Dialog Box for configuring Loriot PF

 

  1.  Click on the Packet Forwarder Type field to select the Loriot Packet Forwarder. Select Loriot from the drop-down menu.
  1. Type the path of the loriot-tektelic-kona-mega-SPI-0-latest.sh file in the Source url field. Path shall be: file:///dev/shm/loriot-tektelic-kona-mega-SPI-0-latest.sh
  1. Enter root as the username and GW Serial ID as the password to proceed forward.
  1. Click OK to configure Loriot Packet Forwarder.
  1. Wait for few minutes to reflect the changes in Kona Mega GW.
On successful change in the type of the packet forwarder, You can see Loriot running as Current Pkt Fwd in the Packet Forwarder Application.

#6  How does the preferred and failover WAN settings and the failover mechanism work in Kona Mega GW?

  1. In Kona GWs, Network Interface is monitored by the Network Monitoring script (check is every 10 seconds). This will continuously check for number of successful pings on Primary Interface.
  1. Below is the detailed procedure that takes place while connecting an Ethernet or cellular. (By default,Ethernet -> Primary Interface, Cellular - Failover Interface) ( Users can change the preferred and fallback interface using Kona FT or OAM) 
  • After power up, when both eth0 (internet) and wwan0 connected, eth0 is the default route with metric 10 and it has DNS entries.
  • When you plug out the eth0 cable or eth0 cable lost internet connection, after 6th ping fails, wwan0 will become default with metric 20 and it has DNS entries.
  • When eth0 gets Internet connectivity (metric 30), After 16th successful ping, eth0 will become default route with metric 10 and it has DNS entries.
  • Wwan0 will be there with metric 20 always (It should have IP) in the default route entry. Only eth0 changes its metric from 10 to 30 or 30 to 10 based on Internet connectivity.
  • Note that Ping check happens only on Primary Interface. There is no Ping check for secondary Interface. Ping check happens every 10 seconds on Primary Interface.
  1. Ethernet is a by default primary connection for Kona GWs. 
  • If the Primary Interface is not available or No Internet, after 6/10 ping failure, all the packets route via Failover Interface.
  • Once the Primary Interface is connected and it has Internet then after 16/20 successful pings, all the packets route via Primary Interface.

#7  Does Kona Mega GW require any lightning arrester or surge protector?

  1. The Kona Mega Gateway contains primary lightning surge suppression on the Direct DC power port, the Copper Ethernet port, the GPS antenna port and the LoRa RF antenna ports. Thus, it won' require any additional lightning arrester or surge protector.

#8  What is the difference between "tmms" and "tmst" timestamps in the Rx packet?

  1. tmms is available only when Gateway connects with GPS. It is basically GPS time.
  1. tmst is created by SX1301 when the Gateway receives packet from the device.

#9 How can I configure Kona Mega gateway to forward and receive packets from other network server?

  • To configure the gateway to forward packets to any network server , you will be required to make changes in server_address field in config.json file.

  • You can make changes in this file through KonaFT. Below is the procedure.

 

            1) Go to Configuration.

 

            2) Click on Refresh files and it will bring config.json file.

 

            3) Click on Read option to read the file.

 

            4) In server_address field, enter network server web address of your choice as shown below.



 

            5) Click on Write option to save the changes.

 

                     6) Power Cycle the gateway.

#10 What are the typical Rx sensitivity and SNR values as a function of LoRaWAN data-rate for Kona Mega gateway supporting US915 and EU868 ISM bands?

  • Kona Mega gateway has a custom RF front-end that optimizes RF linearity and noise figure performance.

  • Below table provides information on typical Rx sensitivity and SNR values as a function of LoRaWAN data rate for US915 and EU868 ISM bands.

North America (US915)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BW (kHz)

Data Rate

SF  

Required SNR (dB) at 10% PER

Thermal Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Noise Figure (dB)

Total Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Rx Sensitivity (dBm)

125

0

10

-15

-123.0

3

-120.0

-135.0

125

1

9

-12.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-132.5

125

2

8

-10

-123.0

3

-120.0

-130.0

125

3

7

-7.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-127.5

500

4

8

-10

-117.0

3

-114.0

-124.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe (EU868)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BW (kHz)

Data Rate

SF  

Required SNR (dB) @ 10% PER

Thermal Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Noise Figure (dB)

Total Noise Floor (dBm)

Typical Gateway Rx Sensitivity (dBm)

125

0

12

-20

-123.0

3

-120.0

-140.0

125

1

11

-17.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-137.5

125

2

10

-15

-123.0

3

-120.0

-135.0

125

3

9

-12.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-132.5

125

4

8

-10

-123.0

3

-120.0

-130.0

125

5

7

-7.5

-123.0

3

-120.0

-127.5

250

6

7

-7.5

-120.0

3

-117.0

-124.5



#11 Does Kona Mega require any extra configuration for using Verizon SIM card in cellular backhaul?

  • Kona Gateways are certified to work with Verizon SIM card.

  • By default, Kona gateways are equipped with generic firmware. Depending upon what type of APN is used with Verizon SIM card, gateway may require installation of Verizon specific firmware along with additional steps.
  • Below are the two scenarios that list the steps.

  1. If Private APN is set for Verizon SIM:
  2. No need of additional firmware installation.
  3. Inform TEKTELIC about the Gateway ID through a support ticket. TEKTELIC can add necessary details to the Verizon database.

 

                  b. If Public APN is set for Verizon SIM: (i.e. VZWINTERNET)
  • Verizon specific firmware needs to be installed on the gateway.
  • Contact TEKTELIC Support by raising a ticket.
  • Depending upon the BSP version running on the gateway, one of Tektelic team member can help you installing the specific firmware.

#12 Is it possible to restore or roll-back the previous BSP version on Kona Mega Gateway?

  • Yes, it is possible to restore the previously running BSP version on Kona Mega if the gateway has a stored backup of the previous BSP version.
  • If you receive a fresh Kona Mega GW with BSP v3.3.0 from Tektelic, then there would not be any backup of previous BSP as it has been programmed and configured with BSP v3.3.0 at the factory itself.  As it is a new GW , there would not be any backup available at that point. However, you can create backups manually at any time using TEK NS server or KonaFT. 
  • If you upgrade that GW to the latest version, say v4.1.2, some time in the future and then you wish to restore GW back to v3.3.0 , you can do that as there would be a backup stored on the GW because  you made an upgrade to v4.1.2 from v3.3.0 earlier.
  • During an upgrade, a backup of the last saved state of a BSP is saved as a back-up by default.
  • Last saved state could be the state either before BSP on the gateway gets upgraded or the explicit backup taken for a particular BSP running on the gateway.

  • Upon restoring a specific backup, the last saved state of that specific BSP version would be restored.

#13 Which ports will be required to open for Kona Mega gateway on any network protected by firewalls?

  1. Below ports will be required for Kona Micro Gateway on a network protected by firewalls.

Port#

Purpose

161

SNMP

22

SSH

1700

 UDP

1883

MQTT


#14 What is the advantage of using two antennas as opposed to one?

  1. The main benefit for using two antennas as opposed to one is to implement Receiver Diversity in the gateway.  
  1. Receiver Diversity refers to the general principle of using multiple (usually two) antennas to take advantage of the very low probability of simultaneous dropouts at two different antenna locations. Please note that using multiple antennas to increase Receiver Diversity will prevent you from receiving on all 64 channels as a result of the overlapping channels. Using two antennas, with no overlapping channels will not increase receiver diversity. 
  1. Because multiple antennas offer a receiver several observations/perspectives of the same signal, Antenna Diversity(Use of multiple antennas) is especially effective at mitigating environmental interference. As a result, the use of multiple antennas is usually recommended for use in urban and outdoor environments where there is not a clear line of sight between transmitter and receiver. 

#15 My gateway status reports Offline despite I powered it up and commissioned with correct information on Tektelic NS. How can I resolve this issue?

  • Gateway may report offline status since TEK MQTT Bridge would have been installed on the gateway by default and you haven't updated MQTT credentials for your gateway on TEK NS.

 

  • Below is the procedure to update credentials on TEK NS.

 

  1. Go to the registered gateway.

 

  1. Click on “Manage Credentials” tab as shown in below screenshot.

 

 

 

  1. Below are the default credentials to configure MQTT Bridge.

Username: TEK00XXYY (Where XXYY represents the last 4 digit of the MAC address)

Password : 9-Digit serial number of the gateway. (For example, it would be similar to 1951A0025)

 

  1. Power cycle the gateway

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